路透社關於Photoshop使用原則




數碼相片, 經常被人誤解, 認為數碼相片多數依賴後制才可以, 其實大家所謂的後制, 很大部份只是調整光暗, 對比, 銳化等等這些表面的後制~

當大家爭論不休時, 出版業界由傳統到數碼的演進, 自己已訂下了一套的準測, 來衡量新聞相片的"真"

大家可以參考, 如何厘定一張數碼相所可以後制的範圍, 當然只作真實的一方面制定, 而藝術創作的一方面, 是不用考慮的

原則內, 還有一些攝影記者的守則, 大家都可以在平常街攝上應用~

資料來源 : http://bbs3.dpnet.com.cn/bbs/DPbbslist/Topic_862_1636594.html



Photoshop is a highly sophisticated image manipulation programme. We use only a tiny part of its potential capability to format our pictures, crop and size them and balance the tone and colour.
Photoshop是一個非常複雜的圖片編輯軟件。我們僅僅隻使用其巨大圖片編輯功能中的一小部分,剪裁和重定圖片大小以及平衡色調和色彩。

Materially altering a picture in Photoshop or any other image editing software will lead to dismissal.
用Photoshop或者其牠任何圖片編輯軟件對照片進行本質修改將直接導至被解僱。


THE RULES ARE(規則是):

1.No additions or deletions to the subject matter of the original image.
不得對原片的主體進行增加或減少
thus changing the original content and journalistic integrity of an image.
不得改變原始內容以及圖片的新聞真實

2.No excessive lightening, darkening or blurring of the image.
不得過度調亮、調暗或者糢糊圖片
thus misleading the viewer by disguising certain elements of an image.
不得通過對圖片某些部分進行掩蓋從而誤導讀者

3.No excessive colour manipulation.
不得過度調整顏色
thus dramatically changing the original lighting conditions of an image.



THE GUIDELINES ARE(指導原則是):

1.Only minor Photoshop work should be performed in the field.
在新聞現場可能通過Photoshop進行細微的調整
(Especially from laptops) We require only cropping, sizing and levels with resolution set to 300dpi. Where possible, ask your regional or global picture desks to perform any required further Photo-shopping on their calibrated hi-resolution screens. This typically entails lightening/darkening, sharpening, removal of dust and basic colour correction.
(尤其在筆記本電腦上)我們要求隻能進行剪裁、調整圖片大小、色階以及分辨率調整至300象素/英吋。當有需要的時候,可以要求地區或者全毬圖片編輯室在其校準過的高分辨率屏幕上進一步對圖片編輯。這些包括調亮/調暗、銳化、清除污點以及基本顏色校準。

2.When working under prime conditions, some further minor Photo-shopping (performed within the above rules) is acceptable.
在一流條件下,進一步的Photoshop細微調節(在以上規定內執行)是可以接受的。
This includes basic colour correction, subtle lightening/darkening of zones, sharpening, removal of dust and other minor adjustments that fall within the above rules. Reuters recommendations on the technical settings for these adjustments appear below.  The level of Photoshop privileges granted to photographers should be at the discretion of the Chief/Senior Photographers within the above guidelines. All photographers should understand the limitations of their laptop screens and their working environments.
這些包括基本的顏色校準,部分區域輕微地調亮/調暗、銳化、去除污點以及其他在以上規則下進行的細微調整。路透社對於這些技術設定的推薦如下:攝影記者所能使用Photoshop程度的權限需要由首席攝影記者/高級攝影記者來處理。所有的攝影記者都必須理解他們筆記本電腦以及工作環境的局限性。


Photographers should trust the regional and global pictures desks to carry out the basic functions to prepare their images for the wire.  All EiCs and sub editors from regional and the global desks will be trained in the use of Photoshop by qualified Adobe trainers to a standard set by senior pictures staff.  The photographer can always make recommendations via the Duty Editor. Ask the desk to lighten the face, darken the left side, lift the shadows etc. Good communication with the desk is essential.
攝影記者必須信任地區編輯室以及全球編輯室來通過一些基本功能來準備他們的照片。地區和全球編輯者的主編和助理編輯都會接受Adobe培訓師的訓練使其達到資深影像專家所確定的標準。攝影記者可以向編輯提出建議。要求編輯調亮人物臉部、調暗左側、消除陰影等。與編輯室的良好交流非常必要。



TECHNICAL GUIDELINES(技術指導):

1. Cloning, Healing or Brush Tools are not to be used. The single exception to this rule is sensor dust removal. The cloning tool will only be used below the 100 pixels radius setting. Unless performed on a well-calibrated screen under good working conditions we strongly recommend photographers to request dust removal by pictures desks.
剋隆,修複或筆刷工具不允許使用。唯一的例外就是去除相機圖象傳感器上灰塵導致的照片污點。剋隆工具隻可以設定在100象素以下進行操作。除非是在良好工作環境下的校準屏幕下,我們強烈建議攝影記者讓編輯室來處理照片上的污點。

2. Saturation should not be used. It affects image quality and cannot be judged well on a laptop screen and adds nothing more than what can be achieved in levels.
色相/飽和度工具不允許使用。牠不僅會影響圖片質量,而且在筆記本電腦的屏幕上也無法被很好的調整,更重要的相對於色階調整的效果而言, 它並沒有什麼特殊之處。

3. Colour Balance adjustment should be kept to the minimum, especially on laptop screens which tend to have a blue dominance.
色彩平衡的調整應該儘量最低限度,尤其在有偏藍色主導的筆記本電腦屏幕上。

4. Levels should only be adjusted to the start points of the histogram graph on both shadows and highlights.
色階工具隻能通過移動色階柱狀圖的起止點來調整暗調和高光。

5. Auto Levels should not be used.
自動色階工具不允許使用。

6. The Burn Tool in most cases should only used to subtly darken areas that have been overexposed. When the burn tool is used in shadows a visible element of everything that can be seen in the raw file must remain visible.
加深、減淡、海綿工具在大多數情況下隻能用於局部輕微調暗曝光過度的地方。當減淡工具在陰影地方使用的時候,原片中所有可視部分應依然保持可以被識別。

7. Highlights and Shadows can be toned by using the selective highlights tool, a feather of 25-30 and then adjusted in curves.
高光和暗調工具隻能通過選擇性的高光工具來調整,通過20~30象素羽化以及曲線調整。

8. The Lasso Tool should not be used when using a laptop to file pictures. It is essential that great care is taken with this tool to avoid the ‘halo’ effect which is produced when the feathering is too great and the tonal change ‘bleeds over’ into the unselected zone. Likewise, not enough feathering will produce a vivid jagged edge to the lasso area. Typically a feathering setting of between 5 and 20 pixels is used, depending on the size and positioning of the zone. Again we strongly recommend this is handled by desks.
套索工具在使用筆記本電腦來編輯圖片時不允許使用。使用此工具的時候應儘量避免由於過度羽化而導緻的“暈輪”傚應,從光調變化“漸進”至那些沒有選擇的區域。類似的,不足的羽化則會導緻套索邊緣區域出現明顯的鋸齒。通常情況下,5~10象素的羽化應當根據照片中調整區域的大小和位置來使用。再次申明,我們強烈建議由編輯室來進行處理。

9. The Eye Dropper can be used on a neutral gray area to set colour. But is dependent on the quality of the computer screen to determine if you are in fact seeing a real gray!
取色器工具隻能通過灰點來設置顏色,但是此舉取決於電腦屏幕的質量事實上是否能夠讓妳看到真正的灰色 。

10. Sharpening should be set at zero (0) in the camera. Pictures may then be sharpened by 300% at a radius of 0.3, threshold 0, in Photoshop.
銳化工具在相機設置中應該被調整到零。照片可能需要在Photoshop中按照300%數量,半徑0.3象素以及值0色階進行銳化。

11. No selective area sharpening should be done.
選擇性局部銳化工具不允許使用。
Third-party Sharpening Plug-ins is not permitted.
第三方銳化工具不允許使用。

12. Third-party Noise-Reduction Plug-ins should be avoided but are acceptable if Chief Photographers are convinced they are being used properly.
第三方澡點減弱插件工具應儘量避免除非當地首席攝影記者確信其被恰當使用。

13. Camera Settings, in particular saturation (and Image Styles in the Canon 5D) should be set to “standard” with the exception of in-camera sharpening which should be turned OFF. The Color setting Adobe RGB is the Reuters standard.
相機設置的特殊色相(例如佳能5D下的照片模式中)應該選擇“標準”,而相機內的銳化功能應該選擇關閉。Abode RGB是路透標準的顏色設置。

14. Multiple-Exposure pictures must be clearly identified in the caption and drawn to the attention of pictures desks before transmission.
多次曝光的照片必篢在圖說中清楚地說明,併且在發稿之前需向編輯室說明。




關於擺拍/策劃新聞照片


1. Reuters photographers, staff and freelance, must not stage or re-enact news events. They may not direct the subjects of their images or add, remove or move objects on a news assignment. Our news photography must depict reality. Any attempt to alter that reality constitutes fabrication and can lead to disciplinary action, including dismissal.
路透社的攝影記者,無論是專職還是自由攝影記者,都絕不允許擺佈或重新導演新聞事件,絕不允許在拍攝過程中擺佈被攝對象或者添加、刪除以及移動被攝對象。路透社的新聞圖片必鬚還原新聞事件發生時的真實場景。任何一種試圖改變這種真實場景的行為將被視為捏造事實,攝影記者將因此受到包括解僱在內的相應懲罰。

2. Photographers may direct the subjects of portraits, formal interviews and non-news feature images needed to illustrate a story. The caption must not mislead the reader into believing these images are spontaneous.
攝影記者在拍攝人物肖像、正式採訪和非新聞類的特寫故事時,可以適當控製被攝對象。對此,圖片說明必須解釋現場情況,避免誤導讀者以為畫面中是自然發生的場景。

3. The presence of the media can often influence how subjects behave. When the behavior shown is the result of the media’s presence, our captions must make that clear.  If photographers from outside Reuters orchestrate or set up scenes, it is still a set-up. 
新聞記者的出現有時會影響被攝對象的表現。當被攝對象的行為是由於新聞記者的出現而產生時,必須在圖片說明中特別標明。在新聞採訪中,即便是非路透社的記者擺佈瞭新聞現場,這張照片也將被視為是擺拍的照片。

4. The best news photography occurs when the presence of the camera is not noticeable. Photographers should be as unobtrusive as possible to avoid influencing events and consider using long lenses.
最佳的新聞畫面是在照相機不被(被攝對象)察覺的情況下產生的。攝影記者必鬚儘量避免影響正在發生的新聞事件,在一些場合可以考慮使用長鏡頭。

5. Composite images that show the progression of an event (e.g. lunar eclipse, time lapse) must indicate the technique in their captions. They are never acceptable in a news assignment. Captions must also make clear when a specialty lens (e.g. lens babies, tilt-shift lenses) or a special technique (e.g. soft focus, zooming) has been used to create an image in portraiture or on a features assignment.
當用合成照片表現某類特殊事件(如日食、月食或者連續畫面)的過程時,必須在圖片說明中交代所使用的特殊攝影技法。在常規新聞事件的報道中,禁止使用這類特殊攝影技法。人物肖像和特寫故事的圖片說明必須交代所使用的特殊鏡頭(如寬角轉換鏡頭lens babies, 移軸鏡tilt-shift lenses),或技法(如柔焦、變焦)。




ACCURACY IN CAPTIONS(圖片說明的準確性):


1. Just as our news photographs must reflect reality, so too should our captions. They must adhere to the basic Reuters rules of accuracy and freedom from bias and must answer the basic questions of good journalism.  Who is in the picture? Where was it taken? When was it taken? What does it show? Why is a subject doing a particular thing?
新聞攝影是圖片與文字相結合的傳播方式,這意味着在這種傳播方式中,文字與攝影同樣重要。因此,圖片說明的準確性是新聞攝影真實性的一部分。合格的圖片說明必須包括完整的新聞要素:誰?什麼時間?在哪兒?發生了什麼?為何發生?

2. They generally consist of a single sentence but a second sentence should be added if additional context or explanation is required.
一般情況下,圖片說明用一句話概括,必要時增添第二句交代新聞背景。

3. Contentious information, like death tolls in conflict, must be sourced. The caption must explain the circumstances in which a photograph was taken and state the correct date.
對於那些容易引起爭議的信息,如死亡人數,必須提供來源。圖片說明必須交代新聞事件發生時的現場情況以及準確時間。

4. Captions must not contain assumptions by the photographer about what might have happened, even when a situation seems likely. Explain only what you have witnessed. All other information about an event must be sourced unless you are certain of your information.
圖片說明中不允許添加攝影記者的任何主觀想象,即便是極有可能發生的現象。除了攝影記者親身見證的信息,圖片說明中的其他任何信息必須標明來源。

5. Captions also should not make assumptions about what a person is thinking e.g. England captain David Beckham ponders his future after his team was knocked out of the World Cup soccer finals ... Stick to what the photo shows and what you know.
圖片說明中禁止出現對被攝對象主觀想法的揣測,如“英格蘭隊世界盃淘汰後,隊長貝剋漢姆考慮着自己的前途……”在圖片說明的寫作中,必須準確地分辨畫面中展示什麼和妳(攝影記者)知道什麼。




Sensitive Images in Controlled Environments(特殊控製情況下的敏感照片):

Some of our photographs are taken under controlled conditions in which photographers cannot operate freely. This is particularly true during conflicts and in countries where the media’s movements are restricted. Such photographs must say if the image was taken during an organized or escorted visit unless the photographer was truly free to work independently.
在一些情況下,攝影記者不得不在受到跼限的條件下工作,特別是在報道衝突時或者在新聞自由受到限制的國家。此時,圖片說明必須交代該畫面時在有(官方)組織的條件下拍攝的。



Photo Opportunities(拍攝機會):

Reuters does not stage news photos. Sometimes, subjects may strike an artificial pose, such as at a product launch, a show business event or a sports victory ceremony or when requested to do so to illustrate a feature. In some circumstances, such as during demonstrations, civil unrest, street celebrations or conflict, the presence of photographers and television crews may prompt subjects to act abnormally.
路透社不擺佈新聞圖片。有時,被攝對象會刻意擺好姿勢等待拍攝,如產品發佈會、商務活動或者慶功會。還有一些情況,如遊行示威或是街頭慶祝,攝影記者和電視記者的出現可能會激發當事人反常的舉動。

These images should be few and can be clichés. They must be clearly captioned to show the reader that the actions are not spontaneous and to explain the context.
這類圖片應該越少越好。如果出現,必須在圖片說明中註明被攝對象的舉動不是自發產生的。


To Recap(再次說明)


ALLOWED(允許的):

Cropping
剪裁

Adjustment of Levels to histogram limits
色階柱狀圖邊緣調整

Minor colour correction
細微顏色修正

Sharpening at 300%, 0.3, 0
銳化300%, 0.3, 0

Careful use of lasso tool
仔細使用套索工具

Subtle use of burn tool
精細使用減淡工具

Adjustment of highlights and shadows
亮光和陰影的調整

Eye dropper to check/set gray
取色器來檢驗或設置灰點



NOT ALLOWED(不允許):

Additions or deletions to image
炤片內容的增加或減少

Cloning & Healing tool (except dust)
剋隆及修複工具(去污點除外)

Airbrush, brush, paint
噴筆、筆刷、繪圖工具

Selective area sharpening
選擇性局部銳化

Excessive lightening/darkening
過度調亮/調暗

Excessive colour tone change
過度色調變化

Auto levels
自動色階

Blurring
減談工具

Eraser tool
橡皮擦工具

Quick Mask
快色遮罩工具

In-camera sharpening
相機內銳化

In-camera saturation styles
相機內色相設置


不得過分改變圖片的原始亮度

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